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Lucha libre - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Lucha libre (Spanish pronunciation: [Л€lut. Кѓa Л€lib. Йѕe], meaning "freestyle wrestling") is a term used in Mexico, and other Spanish- speaking countries, for a form of professional wrestling that has developed within those countries. Although the term nowadays refers exclusively to professional wrestling, it was originally used in the same style as the English term "freestyle wrestling", referring to an amateur wrestling style without the restrictions of Greco- Roman wrestling.
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- Un homme libre. A free man. clear, free, vacant La voie est libre. The way is clear. free, without obligation Temps libre. Free time. Derived terms.
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- La voie est libre. The way is clear. free, without obligation Temps libre. Free time. Derived terms. champ libre; libre arbitre; licence libre; logiciel libre; papier libre; Anagrams. liber; External links.
Mexican wrestling is characterized by colorful masks, rapid sequences of holds and maneuvers, as well as "high- flying" maneuvers, some of which have been adopted in the United States. The wearing of masks has developed special significance, and matches are sometimes contested in which the loser must permanently remove his mask, which is a wager with a high degree of weight attached. Tag team wrestling is especially prevalent in lucha libre, particularly matches with three- member teams, called trios. Lucha libre is given a theme of rudeness making it look clandestine, as are cockfighting. Lucha libre wrestlers are known as luchadores (singular luchador) ("wrestler(s)"). They usually come from extended wrestling families who form their own stables. One such line integrated to the United States professional wrestling scene is Los Guerreros.
Lucha libre has also transcended the language barrier to some extent as evidenced by works such as Los Luchadores, ВЎMucha Lucha!, and Nacho Libre. It also appears in other pop culture such as mainstream advertising: In Canada Telus' Koodo Mobile Post Paid cell service uses a cartoon lucha libre wrestler as its spokesperson/mascot. The rules of lucha libre are similar to American singles matches.
Matches can be won by pinning the opponent to the mat for the count of three, making him submit, knocking him out of the ring for a predetermined count (generally twenty) or by disqualification. Using the ropes for leverage is illegal, and once a luchador is on the ropes, his opponent must release any holds and he will not be able to pin him. Disqualifications occur when an opponent uses an illegal hold, move (such as the piledriver, which is an illegal move in lucha libre and grounds for immediate disqualification, though some variations are legal in certain promotions), or weapon, hits his opponent in the groin (faul), uses outside interference, attacks the referee, or rips his opponent's mask completely off. Most matches are two out of three falls (de dos a tres ca. Гdas), which had been abandoned for title bouts in North America and Japan in the 1.
A rule unique to lucha libre applies during tag team matches, which is when the legal wrestler of a team touches the floor outside the ring, a teammate may enter the ring to take his place as the legal competitor. As the legal wrestler can step to the floor willingly, there is essentially no need for an actual tag to a teammate to bring him into a match.
This often allows for much more frenetic action to take place in the ring than would otherwise not be possible under standard tag rules. History. Publicity still of Salvador Lutteroth Gonz. ГЎles. The history of Mexican wrestling dating back to 1. French Intervention in Mexico, Enrique Ugartechea, the first Mexican wrestler, developed and invented the Mexican lucha libre from the Greco- Roman wrestling.In the early 1. Mexico until Salvador Lutteroth founded the Empresa Mexicana de Lucha Libre (Mexican Wrestling Enterprise) in 1. The promotion company flourished and quickly became the premier spot for wrestlers. As television surfaced as a viable entertainment medium during the 1.
Lutteroth was then able to broadcast his wrestling across the nation, subsequently yielding a popularity explosion for the sport. Moreover, it was the emergence of television that allowed Lutteroth to promote lucha libreвЂ™s first breakout superstar into a national pop- culture phenomenon.In 1. El Santo (The Saint), first stepped into the ring. He made his debut in Mexico City by winning an 8- man battle royal. The public became enamored by the mystique and secrecy of Santo's personality, and he quickly became the most popular luchador in Mexico. His wrestling career spanned nearly five decades, during which he became a folk hero and a symbol of justice for the common man through his appearances in comic books and movies, while the sport received an unparalleled degree of mainstream attention.Other legendary luchadores who helped popularize the sport include Gory Guerrero, who is credited with developing moves and holds which are now commonplace in professional wrestling; Blue Demon, a contemporary of Santo and possibly his greatest rival; and Mil MГЎscaras (Man of A Thousand Masks) who is credited with introducing the high flying moves of lucha libre to audiences around the world. He achieved international fame as one of the first high- flyers, something he was not considered in Mexico, where he fell under the mat- power category.Style of wrestlingLuchadores are traditionally more agile and perform more aerial maneuvers than professional wrestlers in the United States, who more often rely on power and hard strikes to subdue their opponents.
The difference in styles is due to the independent evolution of the sport in Mexico beginning in the 1. Mexican lucha libre.Luchadores execute characteristic high flying attacks by using the wrestling ring's ropes to catapult themselves towards their opponents, using intricate combinations in rapid- fire succession, and applying complex submission holds. Rings used in lucha libre generally lack the spring supports added to U. S. and Japanese rings; as a result, lucha libre does not emphasize the "flat back" bumping style of other professional wrestling styles. For this same reason, aerial maneuvers are almost always performed to opponents outside the ring, allowing the luchador to break his fall with an acrobatic tumble. A lucha libre tag team match. Lucha libre has several different weight classes, many catered to smaller agile fighters, who often make their debuts in their mid- teens.
This system enables dynamic high- flying luchadores such as Rey Mysterio, Jr., Juventud Guerrera, Super Crazy and MГstico, to develop years of experience by their mid- twenties.[1. A number of prominent Japanese wrestlers also started their careers training in Mexican lucha libre before becoming stars in Japan. These include Gran Hamada, Satoru Sayama, Jushin Thunder Liger, and Гљltimo Drag. Гіn. Lucha libre is also known for its tag team wrestling matches. The teams are often made up of three members, instead of two as is common in the United States. These three man teams participate in what are called trios matches, for tag team championship belts.
Of these three members, one member is designated the captain. A successful fall in a trios match can be achieved by either pinning the captain of the opposing team or by pinning both of the other members.
A referee can also stop the match because of "excessive punishment". He can then award the match to the aggressors. Falls often occur simultaneously, which adds to the extremely stylized nature of the action.
In addition, a wrestler can opt to roll out of the ring in lieu of tagging a partner or simply be knocked out of the ring, at which point one of his partners may enter. As a result, the tag team formula and pacing which has developed in U. S. tag matches is different from lucha libre because the race to tag is not a priority.
There are also two- man tag matches (parejas), as well as "four on four" matches (atomicos).[1. An unknown wrestler wearing a Blue Demon mask. Masks (m. ГЎscaras) have been used dating back to the beginnings of lucha libre in the early part of the 2. Mexico in general, dating to the days of the Aztecs.[1. Early masks were very simple with basic colors to distinguish the wrestler. In modern lucha libre, masks are colorfully designed to evoke the images of animals, gods, ancient heroes, and other archetypes, whose identity the luchador takes on during a performance. Virtually all wrestlers in Mexico will start their careers wearing masks, but over the span of their careers, a large number of them will be unmasked.
Sometimes, a wrestler slated for retirement will be unmasked in his final bout or at the beginning of a final tour, signifying loss of identity as that character. Sometimes, losing the mask signifies the end of a gimmick with the wrestler moving on to a new gimmick and mask. The mask is considered "sacred" to a degree, so much so that fully removing an opponent's mask during a match is grounds for disqualification.[1. During their careers, masked luchadores will often be seen in public wearing their masks and keeping up the culture of Lucha Libre, while other masked wrestlers will interact with the public and press normally. However, they will still go to great lengths to conceal their true identities; in effect, the mask is synonymous with the luchador. El Santo continued wearing his mask after retirement, revealed his face briefly only in old age, and was buried wearing his silver mask.
More recently, the masks luchadores wear have become iconic symbols of Mexican culture. Contemporary artists like Francisco Delgado and Xavier Garza incorporate wrestler masks in their paintings.[1. Although masks are a feature of lucha libre, it is a misconception that every Mexican wrestler uses one. There have been several maskless wrestlers who have been successful, particularly Tarz. ГЎn LГіpez, Gory Guerrero, Perro Aguayo and Negro Casas. Formerly masked wrestlers who lost their masks, such as Sat.
ГЎnico, Cien Caras, Cibern. Г©tico and others, have had continued success despite the mask losses. Luchas de Apuestas. Luchador masks on display as souvenirs in a shop at Playa del Carmen. With the importance placed on masks in lucha libre, losing the mask to an opponent is seen as the ultimate insult, and can at times seriously hurt the career of the unmasked wrestler. Putting one's mask on the line against a hated opponent is a tradition in lucha libre as a means to settle a heated feud between two or more wrestlers. In these battles, called luchas de apuestas ("matches with wagers"), the wrestlers "wager" either their mask or their hair.[1.
In a lucha de apuesta (betting match), wrestlers make a public bet on the outcome of the match. The most common forms are the mask- against- mask, hair- against- hair, or mask- against- hair matches. A wrestler who loses his or her mask has to remove the mask after the match.
A wrestler who loses their hair is shaved immediately afterward."[1. If the true identity of a person losing his mask is previously unknown, it is customary for that person to reveal his real name, hometown and years as a professional upon unmasking. The first lucha de apuestas was presented on July 1. Arena MГ©xico. The defending champion Murci. Г©lago (Vel. ГЎsquez) was so much lighter than his challenger (Octavio Gaona), he requested a further condition before he would sign the contract: Octavio Gaona would have to put his hair on the line. Octavio Gaona won the match and Murci. Г©lago unmasked, giving birth to a tradition in lucha libre.[1.
VariantsEl Oriental's elaborate mask was lost in a lucha de apuesta. MГЎscara contra m.
ГЎscara ("mask versus mask"): two masked luchadores bet their masks, the loser is unmasked by the winner. MГЎscara contra cabellera ("mask versus hair"): a masked wrestler and an unmasked one compete, sometimes after the unmasked one has lost his mask to the masked one in a prior bout. If the masked luchador wins, the unmasked one shaves his head as a sign of humiliation. If the unmasked luchador is the winner, he keeps his hair and the loser is unmasked. Cabellera contra cabellera ("hair versus hair"): the loser of the match has his head shaved bald.
This can occur both between unmasked wrestlers and between masked wrestlers who have to remove their mask enough to be shaved after the match. An example of this occurred in the WWE, where Roddy Piper defeated Adrian Adonis at Wrestle. Mania III. MГЎscara o cabellera contra campeonato ("mask or hair versus title"): if the title challenger loses, they are unmasked or shaved. But if the champion loses, the challenger is crowned the new champion. An example of this occurred in the WWE, where Rey Mysterio, a masked luchador, beat the Intercontinental Champion Chris Jericho at WWE The Bash. A different result happened earlier on Raw in 2.
Kane failed to defeat Triple H for the World Heavyweight Championship, and unmasked per the stipulation. MГЎscara o cabellera contra retiro ("mask or hair versus career"): if the masked or haired luchador loses, his opponent wins the mask or hair. But if he wins, his opponent must retire. Carrera contra carrera ("career versus career"): Loser must retire. An example of this occurred in the WWE, where The Ultimate Warrior defeated "Macho King" Randy Savage at Wrestle. Mania VII. Weight classesSince Lucha Libre has its roots more in Latin American professional wrestling than North American professional wrestling it retains some of the basics of the Latin American version such as more weight classes than professional wrestling in North America post World War II. Like "old school" European (especially British) wrestling, some Japanese wrestling and early 2.
American wrestling,[1. Lucha Libre has a detailed weight class system patterned after boxing. Each weight class has an official upper limit, but examples of wrestlers who are technically too heavy to hold their title can be found. The following weight classes exist in Lucha Libre, as defined by the "Comisi. Гіn de Box y Lucha Libre Mexico D.
F." (the Mexico City Boxing and Wrestling Commission), the main regulatory body in Mexico: [1. Name (English)Name (Spanish)Weight Limit. Titles in division. Flyweight. Mosca. None. Bantamweight. Gallo. 57 kg (1. 26 lb)None.
Featherweight. Pluma. Mexican National, UWALightweight.
Ligero. 70 kg (1. Mexican National, UWA, WWA, IWRGSuper Lightweight. Super Ligero. 73 kg (1. CMLLWelterweight. Welter. 77 kg (1.
Mexican National, NWA, CMLL, UWA, WWA, IWRGSuper Welterweight. Super welter. 82 kg (1. IWRGMiddleweight.
Medio. 87 kg (1. 92 lb)Mexican National, NWA, CMLL, UWA, WWA, IWRGSuper Middleweight / Junior Light Heavyweight. Super medio / Semicompleto Junior.
UWA, WWALight Heavyweight. Semi completo. 97 kg (2. Mexican National, NWA, CMLL, UWA, WWAJunior Heavyweight / Cruiserweight. Completo junior / Crucero. UWA, AAAHeavyweight. Completo. 10. 5 kg (2.
Minimum)Mexican National, CMLL, UWA, WWA, IWRG, AAAOther characteristicsLuchadores are traditionally divided into two categories, rudos (lit. Г©cnicos (the "good guys", or "faces", literally "technicians"), who play by the rules and their moves are much more complex and spectacular. TГ©cnicos tend to have very formal combat styles, close to Greco- Roman wrestling and martial arts techniques, whereas rudos tend to be brawlers. TГ©cnicos playing the "good guy" role, and rudos playing the "bad guy" role is very characteristic of Mexican lucha libre, which differs from U. S. professional wrestling, where many technical wrestlers play the role of heels (e.
Kurt Angle & Randy Orton), and many brawlers play as "faces" (e. Stone Cold Steve Austin & John Cena).[2. Although rudos often resort to using underhanded tactics, they are still expected to live up to a luchador code of honor. For instance, a luchador who has lost a wager match would prefer to endure the humiliation of being unmasked or having his head shaved rather than live with the shame that would come from not honoring his bet. Rudos have also been known to make the transition into t. Г©cnicos after a career defining moment, as was the case with Blue Demon, who decided to become a t.
Г©cnico after his wrestling partner, Black Shadow, was unmasked by the legendary Santo. Tag teams are sometimes composed of both rudos and t. Г©cnicos in what are called parejas increibles (incredible pairings). Parejas increibles highlight the conflict between a luchador's desire to win and his contempt for his partner.[2. A staple gimmick present in lucha libre since the 1. Гіtico, basically a gay character in drag.
It is argued that the gimmick has recently attained a more flamboyant outlook.[2. Luchadores, like their foreign counterparts, seek to obtain a campeonato (championship) through winning key wrestling matches. Since many feuds and shows are built around luchas de apuestas (matches with wagers), title matches play a less prominent role in Mexico than in the U. S. Titles can be defended as few as one time per year.[2. Lucha libre uses a more specific weight class system to classify titles. Popular weight classes include: heavyweight, light- heavyweight, welterweight and middleweight. Lightweight and super- lightweight titles are also used.
The cruiserweight division is often associated with the lucha libre style of wrestling, even though in Mexico, the term light- heavyweight (peso semicompleto) is used due to a different weight class system. In recent years, weight classes have been mostly nominal and there are occasions when a wrestler will have titles in two different weight classes, for example MГЎscara Dorada holding both the CMLL World Super Lightweight Championship and the CMLL World Welterweight Championship at the same time.[2. The two biggest lucha libre promotions in Mexico are Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre (CMLL), which was founded in 1. Asistencia Asesor. Гa y Administraci.
Гіn (AAA).[2. 5]Female professional wrestlersFemale wrestlers or luchadoras also compete in Mexican lucha libre. The CMLL World Women's Championship is the top title for CMLL's women's division, while the AAA Reina de Reinas Championship is a championship defended in an annual tournament by female wrestlers in AAA.
AAA also recognizes a World Mixed Tag Team Championship, contested by tag teams composed of a luchador and luchadora respectively. In 2. 00. 0, the all female promotion company Lucha Libre Femenil (LLF) was founded.[2. Mini- EstrellasMain article: Mini- Estrella. Cuije, an example of Mini- Estrella. Lucha Libre has a division called the "Mini- Estrella" or "Minis" division, which unlike North American midget professional wrestling is not just for dwarfs but also for luchadores that are short, originally the limit for the Mini division was 5 feet but in recent years wrestlers such as Peque. Г±o Ol. Гmpico have worked the Minis division despite being 1. The Minis division was first popularized in the 1.
Peque. Г±o Luke and Arturito (a wrestler with an R2- D2 gimmick) becoming noticed for their high flying abilities. In the late 1. 98. CMLL created the first actual "Minis" division, the brainchild of then- CMLL booker Antonio Pe. Г±a. CMLL created the CMLL World Mini- Estrella Championship in 1. Minis championship still in existence today.[2. Minis are often patterned after "regular sized" wrestlers and are sometimes called "mascotas" ("pets") if they team with the regular sized version.[2. Luchadors in the United StatesIn 1.
AAA promoted the When Worlds Collidepay- per- view in conjunction with the U. S. promotion company World Championship Wrestling (WCW). When Worlds Collide introduced U.
S. audiences to many of the top luchadores in Mexico at the time. In recent years, several luchadores have found success in the United States.
Notable luchadores who achieved success in the U. S. are Eddie Guerrero, Rey Mysterio, Jr., Juventud Guerrera, La Parka, Super Crazy, Alberto Del Rio, Psicosis, Sin Cara and Kalisto. Lucha libre shows are broadcast weekly in the U. S. on the Galavisi. Гіn and LA TV Spanish language cable networks. In 2. 01. 2, the Arizona Diamondbacks Major League Baseball team started doing promotions involving Lucha Libre. A luchador mask in Diamondback colors was a popular giveaway at one game.
In 2. 01. 3 a Diamondbacks Luchador was made an official mascot, joining D. Baxter Bobcat. The first 2.
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